21 Reflection Points
At the beginning of the meeting in the Vatican on "The Protection of Minors in the Church", Pope Francis shared with the participants some "guidelines" to help their work. They are 21 "Reflection Points" formulated by various Commissions and Episcopal Conferences.
The Pope described them as “a simple starting point”, that "do not take away from the creativity that must be present in this meeting.”
The 21 Reflection Points
1. To prepare a practical handbook indicating the steps to be taken by authorities at key
moments when a case emerges.
2. To equip oneself with listening structures that include trained and expert people who can
initially discern the cases of the alleged victims.
3. Establish the criteria for the direct involvement of the Bishop or of the Religious Superior.
4. Implement shared procedures for the examination of the charges, the protection of the
victims and the right of defense of the accused.
5. Inform the civil authorities and the higher ecclesiastical authorities in compliance with civil
and canonical norms.
6. Make a periodic review of protocols and norms to safeguard a protected environment for
minors in all pastoral structures: protocols and norms based on the integrated principles of
justice and charity so that the action of the Church in this matter is in conformity with her
7. Establish specific protocols for handling accusations against Bishops.
8. Accompany, protect and treat victims, offering them all the necessary support for a complete
9. Increase awareness of the causes and consequences of sexual abuse through ongoing
formation initiatives of Bishops, Religious Superiors, clerics and pastoral workers.
10.Prepare pathways of pastoral care for communities injured by abuses and penitential and
recovery routes for the perpetrators.
11.To consolidate the collaboration with all people of good will and with the operators of mass
media in order to recognize and discern real cases from false ones and accusations of
slander, avoiding rancor and insinuations, rumors and defamation (cf. Pope Francis’ address
to the Roman Curia, 21 December 2018).
12.To raise the minimum age for marriage to sixteen years.
13.Establish provisions that regulate and facilitate the participation of lay experts in
investigations and in the different degrees of judgment of canonical processes concerning
sexual and / or power abuse.
14.The right to defense: the principle of natural and canon law of presumption of innocence
must also be safeguarded until the guilt of the accused is proven. Therefore, it is necessary
to prevent the lists of the accused being published, even by the dioceses, before the
preliminary investigation and the definitive condemnation.
15. Observe the traditional principle of proportionality of punishment with respect to the crime
committed. To decide that priests and bishops guilty of sexual abuse of minors leave the
16.Introduce rules concerning seminarians and candidates for the priesthood or religious life.
Be sure that there are programs of initial and ongoing formation to help them develop their
human, spiritual and psychosexual maturity, as well as their interpersonal relationships and
17.Be sure to have psychological evaluations by qualified and accredited experts for candidates
for the priesthood and consecrated life.
18.Establish norms governing the transfer of a seminarian or religious aspirant from one
seminary to another; as well as a priest or religious from one diocese or congregation to
19.Formulate mandatory codes of conduct for all clerics, religious, service personnel and
volunteers to outline appropriate boundaries in personal relationships. Be specific about the
necessary requirements for staff and volunteers and check their criminal record.
20.Explain all information and data on the dangers of abuse and its effects, how to recognize
signs of abuse and how to report suspected sexual abuse. All this must take place in
collaboration with parents, teachers, professionals and civil authorities.
21.Where it has not yet been in place, establish a group easily accessible for victims who want
to report any crimes. Such an organization should have a certain autonomy with respect to
the local ecclesiastical authority and include expert persons (clerics and laity) who know
how to express the Church's attention to those who have been offended by improper attitudes
on the part of clerics.